How does Peace Studies help us today. How peace studies helps us build political enquiry in a General Election campaign

How peace studies helps us build political enquiry in a General Election campaign.

Peace, nonviolence and peacebuilding are underpinned by values of listening, acknowledging the ‘other’ and seeking creative solutions that support everyone to have their needs met. In diverse communities in the UK, countries struggling to reduce violence and those engaged in peace processes, people have worked long and hard to show the importance of dialogue and conversation, of inclusivity, and how to create ways of acknowledging the continued existence and worth of the ‘other’. They do this because we know that these are processes which encourage participation, willingness to build relationships and can lead to long term change. These are the same values we profess to want from politicians.

By contrast, a General Election is typified by politicians, media and political parties wanting to make clear their differences, by creating an ‘us’ and ‘them’. Whilst this is a feature of a the electoral system and political parties want to be seen as separate from one another, it doesn’t mean everyone has to follow. 

The UK is already a conflict ridden country. The very close referendum results on Scottish independence and leaving the EU, the increase polarisation in the media and physical attacks, and increase in inequality all indicate the depth and breadth of the conflicts. The General Election, whatever the outcome, will add to these conflicts. So what do we do?

Firstly, we need to have conversations and understand that everything is more complex than can be explained through an ‘us’ and ‘them’ lens. A contribution of peace studies is to show the complexity, the web, the many perspectives on every problem and issue. The General Election reporting or questioning will be trying to find out the exact policies and differences between parties but we, the people, can refuse to accept that simplicity and we can ask about their alliances (who else do they work with), their perspectives (how have they formed these views), how do they think healthcare relates to education, or how international aid relates to security. We can examine and question their statements in the light of the many existing conflicts – are they likely to bring us solutions to the conflicts, or fan the flames of dissent?

Secondly, change and influence is an uncertain process. Peace studies shows us that where there is conflict there is no single route or path through it, that it exists in cycles, and that everyone plays a part. Peacebuilder John Paul Lederach gives us the concept of ‘critical yeast’ when exploring ways to reduce and transform conflicts. His work has shown him that we need to be alert to the opportunities, conversations or people where the actions may seem small, but they have a huge impact. He uses the idea of yeast because the small contribution of yeast in baking creates a huge change. For example in this General Election time, someone with good community relationships, or a role in the media, or able to connect voters over a single issue may have a disproportionate effect on the campaigns, but yeast needs to be nurtured and have the right conditions to do it’s job. By being open to the uncertainty, being open to nurturing those who can transform conflicts, and being reflective on our own role in how conflict is expressed, we can use the power of uncertainty to 

We are living in a country with high levels of conflict. We don’t have to follow the path of division and we do know how to creatively manage the conflict so that relationships are maintained or built (through talking to one another and accepting our differences). There is no certainty in conflict, regardless of the confidence of the parties, the people who are the yeast that can create dramatic shifts live and work among us – we can nurture and support them.

The first step – to Talk About Politics everywhere. 

If you like listening and talking about politics then offer an hour of your time at the local food bank or community centre as a start.

Dr Rachel Julian

The next 6 weeks – what should we do? A General Election call to action.

The next 6 weeks – what should we do?
The most radical action you can take right now is ‘Talk About Politics‘.

Talk to those who don’t agree with yours well as friends and colleagues – open the conversation.

Find out what they think as well as telling them what you think. There is great power in conversation. 

Talk about voting – persuade people to vote. Whoever you vote for you are using some political power that has been given to you by the state.

Talk about oppression – how are poor people treated? what do minorities think about politics? Do you think it’s right that some people control all the money? What rights should workers have? Oppression is real and all around us, and talking about it might help us realise what we want the Government to do. It might help you decide what sort of Government you want.

Talk about the NHS – if you want to keep ‘free at the point of use’, then talk about how its’ being sold off. Talk to workers in the NHS and find out what they think they need from a Government.

Talk about education – What do our schools need, what do our teachers think…and what do our children know about General Election.

Talk about security and the arms trade – Are you happy with us keeping nuclear weapons, with selling arms to regimes that kill their people or neighbours? What security would like us to have?

Talk in the work clubs and the community centres – what do you think the General Election is about, what do you care about. Any idea how to make your views clear to politicians. Invite people in, get cups of tea brewing and a safe place to talk.

Talk in the food banks – is everyone registered to vote – does everyone even know there is going to a be a General Election? 
For the next 6 weeks we are living in a political space. The decisions we make on June 8th will have a big effect on us for decades to come. Giving people the information to make a decision is one of the most powerful and radical acts we can do today.

This is a time when party political messages will dominate the media…but real people – us – have real concerns, the things that affect our daily lives, and through talking with one another we will share them, and find out that other people feel just as interested, frustrated, inspired, tired, thoughtful, questioning or fearful as ourselves…and there is power in that sharing.

Why is a conversation going to help?

The political elites (including media) will try to restrict the topics and the issues that we talk about – but it’s not just Brexit and the economy. The everyday things in our lives are part of this General Election as well – the NHS, the need for social welfare benefits, security and nuclear weapons, education – the funding and the value of teachers.

Talking, discussion, sharing our views about politics is something that we are discouraged from doing. In the 1970′s when women started sharing experiences about their lives they created a movement and a momentum that changed the social structures of the UK – People talking together creates power and changes the way we live.

Let’s put oppression in the conversation. Let’s make the UK a political space.

Let’s ‘Talk About Politics’

Dr Rachel Julian

Senior Lecturer in Peace Studies, Leeds Beckett University

The narratives we live by…

We are curious to find out what we can learn about conflict and peace through culture…what does it look like if we start from the clothes we choose to wear, the films we make, the music we listen to and the places we memorialize? In Myanmar we are finding multiple conflicts which look different across the country, the complexity is mind-blowing, and in the future I will be reading reports of ceasefires and agreements with a new understanding. 
Culture can be the everyday meaning we give to the way we construct our world. Our thinking today has been on the importance of narrative – what is the story which is being told? We have been asking (others and ourselves) ‘how did you first know about conflict, whatever that may mean to you’. We hear messages and stories from our parents, elders, teachers, media and friends – sometimes these become narratives – a message so powerful that we accept it as true. These narratives can tell us that there is an ‘other’ someone or some group who is different to us, or has characteristics we don’t like, or who can even threaten us. The narrative runs in our head and affects our attitudes and behaviour….which then can contribute to conflict. 

The overall narrative that ‘going to a war is a heroic act’ (different to the reality that we know, which is that war is horrific) is prevalent in most societies and one accepted by many and used to support violent intervention and the arms trade. What we’re learning about the importance of narrative is not just revelation to direct violence, but is making me think about the politics in the UK (and now the USA). I am wondering how much the UK Leave campaign and the Trump campaign used narrative to win – how much is politics is now about the stories you tell, not the facts or policies you propose.

Here in Myanmar the narratives are as strong as they are in the U.K., and just like in the U.K. there are many who are creatively challenging them and creating new narratives about the importance of peace.

Researching in Myanmar.

Life is certainly lived on the streets in Yangon. Food stalls, markets, books, teashops and meeting people all happens as you walk along the busy and crowded streets. As well as stray dogs, bicycles and lots of cars! I walk through these streets and travel the roads as we go to meet those who are willing to share stories about living here. I am meeting with local people who work for peace in different ways and listening to them talk about their lives and their work. 

We have met a storytelling organisation who write and produce books for children about peace, friendship and tolerance. They send them out to children and libraries and schools so they can think and discuss about the way we want to live with other people. Some children have written their own illustrated stories about peace and conflict. We have met some amazing artists who use their skills and work to talk about peace, who sing about peace, organise festivals and are making magazines where people can discuss their hopes and visions.
I am struck by the huge change that people living here have faced. The difference that in Yangon they can now organise for a peace in a way which was not possible, before means that the people we meet are talking about different kinds of conflict and violence and how it affects their lives.

It is so interesting and I am learning so much from people, and about the ways in which violence and conflict and peace are present in our everyday lives.


Thursday 10 November

How are we approaching the research into culture, conflict and community?

If I asked you to tell me about your community, what would you say? If I asked you to tell me what your community thinks about the conflicts that it is involved in (this is not the same as violence, every community has differences and conflicts!), how would you explain it? Would you choose stories, tell me about events you do together, or symbols that unite you? Would it be easier to explain the conflicts between the generations, that the community has with ‘outsiders’, or link it to the past?

In peace and conflict studies we don’t have a set methodology for finding out the intricate differences of lived experience in communities and how that might be important to our understanding of conflict and peace, and we have often relied on social science methods of interviews or data that has already been categorised into aspects we want to know about. In this research we are drawing on other disciplines to see if we can find a way of listening with curiosity and are not restricting our understanding because of preconceptions that we have.

We are drawing on ethnography, and particularly the way of observing and noting everything that people say, wear or do, as potentially important in understanding. We are drawing on community engagement work where evidence suggests that there is power in the process of communities stating and sharing their visions and perceptions, so by asking and listening we already change some of that relationship. We are drawing on cultural studies and the way in which it frames the importance of lived experience and the embedded nature of culture. We are drawing on feminist approaches to understanding power.

Some work has been done, for example John Paul Lederach’s work in Nepal where the close working with communities revealed environmental conflicts that had been hidden, or in his book ‘When Blood and Bones Cry out’ where social healing is explored through stories. Adam Curle’s work also from peace studies is focused on the building of relationships. Historian Mandy Sadan has been collecting stories in Myanmar, with a different focus, and has put collections of photographs and stories online.

I have done desk research, and I think there is so much we can learn from Myanmar about the power in our own communities and the importance of enquiring about the conflicts within and between us, and more consciousness about the way we give our culture meaning.

Why am I going to Myanmar to do research?

Monday 6th November.

I am curious about the way people in local communities share their opinions and wishes about how they want to live, or how they manage to influence those controlling money and resources. This curiosity has led me to wonder how rural communities in the U.K. negotiate to keep, and source, services, and the ways they make their needs known to government or agencies. In this I have been working with a small voluntary organisation for many years. My work on Unarmed Civilian Peacekeeping is about how communities use protection strategies to help create new relationships in their areas and how this enables them to create spaces for peace. The communities we live in are incredibly complex, many individuals, families, businesses and services all in a web and then relating to the other intermediate and national levels of decision-making, and I am seeking ways of understanding this complexity and how we could be giving it more power.
I think it’s important that communities can influence what happens to them because if we want peace, then it is about strong relationships and trust, but in order for people to have the space and energy to build these, then basic needs of shelter, food, safety and health need to be met…and so being able to communicate needs, and get support for meeting those needs, means communities being able to speak.

Our research in Myanmar is exploring this focus on the importance of communities by taking one step further and wondering how we can learn and understand what communities know and want by listening to how they give meaning to aspects of culture. In Myanmar we will be talking to people about their culture, and through stories, music, art, and craft learn about how communities see themselves and the way they communicate their knowledge and ideas to others. Myanmar is a place we can learn a lot from because of the dramatic changes it has undergone in recent years and so people in communities will have new options.

As well as being able to learn more about the roles communities take on themselves, and the way meaning is expressed through culture, we will be reflecting on the link between conflict, violence and peace in relation to cultural stories.

What can we learn about conflict by studying culture and lived experience?

For the past few months I have been working to explore the way in which we link culture, the meaning we give to our experiences, and conflict. Next week I am joining colleagues in Myanmar where we have the privilege of meeting and listening to people who live there, and hearing about their lives and enquiring with curiosity how that helps us understand conflict. I will be posting reflective posts here during the trip as part of the research process.

The ‘right to peaceful protest in the U.K.’ and private ownership of land.

Call for research information: Have you peacefully protested on privately owned land or buildings in the UK and been asked to leave? If so, would you be able to tell me about it so I can gather a picture of the issues raised?


I am researching the way in which changing ownership of land and buildings in the UK, that can look like public space or public buildings, is having an effect on the ‘right to peaceful protest’.

I have anecdotal stories and information, and some from my own experience, but I am interested to know how widespread the issue is, and if it is having a wider impact on peaceful protest that we don’t yet know about. Examples include the Occupy camp being moved off the privately owned ‘public space’ in the City, or rules about not being able to protest in privately owned shopping centres.

I have spent most of my life as a peace activist and organiser and currently teach Peace Studies at Leeds Beckett University. I want to write and talk about the impact of increasing private ownership of land on peaceful protest and the ‘right to peaceful protest’.

To take part in this research I am looking for people who have one or more experiences of peaceful protest on private land (buildings, shopping centres, ‘public space’, etc) who would be happy to share that experience and tell me about what happened and any other impacts or opinions you have about it 

To share your experiences we can either meet in person, by phone/skype, or correspond by email. Participation is entirely voluntary and you can withdraw at any time. I am only collecting information about the circumstances and experiences of the protest not about you.

By sharing your experiences you will be helping to build a better picture and understanding of the impact of increasing sale of public land into private ownership.

If you would like to join in, and be able to meet in person, by phone or email please let me know and contact me before December 31st 2016.

My contact details are:

Rachel Julian

Leeds Beckett University

R.julian@leedsbeckett.ac.uk


Bruce Kent speaking for nuclear disarmament.